Pterostilbene as Natural Smart Drugs in Global Focus Nootropic

Pterostilbene

Indian Kino Tree

Pterostilbene (also known as trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxystilbene or PTE), is a naturally occurring ‘stilbene’ polyphenol antioxidant found in the bark of the Indian Kino tree (Pterocarpus marsupium) and also in small amounts within grapes, lingonberries, cranberries, blueberries. While it is readily available in its natural form, taking PTE as a supplement ensures that you receive the maximum beneficial dose of this antioxidant to reap the rewards.

Pterostilbene and Resveratrol are both stilbene polyphenols, created by plants to combat insect infestation, fight infection and protect from heat and UV exposure. [source:1] In humans, they’re both proven to boost cognition, memory and learning, however there are some key differences between the two. Pterostilbene crosses the blood-brain barrier quicker and remains in your system longer than Resveratrol (PTE has a half-life of 105 minutes compared to Resveratrol’s 12 minutes). [source:2] They also differ in bioavailability, with PTE boasting an 80% rating compared to the 20% of its rival, there really is no question which the most impressive polyphenol is. [source:3]

 

Structure-1-Pterostilbene.png

Benefits

Within the nootropics community Pterosilbene is quickly gaining a name for itself for its numerous beneficial effects. Among these are:

  • Improves Cognition & Age-Related Decline
  • Improves Spatial Memory & Learning
  • Maintains Cardiovascular Health
  • Protects Neurons
  • Boosts Dopamine
  • Reduces Anxiety

 

Improves Cognition & Age-Related Decline

Pterostilbene improves cognition & age-related decline in a number of ways; through its antioxidant [source:4] and anti-inflammatory properties [source:5], and through its effects on gene expression.

Source : 3

Source : 3

Studies have shown that both Pterostilbene and Resveratrol improve cognition and provide some protection against age-related conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. One such study at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland Ohio set about to compare the two nootropics, wanting to discover which was the most successful in improving cognitive decline by tracking inflammation, cellular stress and other pathology markers. Mice were used which had been bred to exhibit a similar pathology to that of Alzheimer’s patients and were given a Pterostilbene heavy diet over two months, while another group of mice were fed a standard diet. Not only did the Pterostilbene mice perform better in a maze test, but their inflammation, cellular stress and Alzheimer’s pathology were all controlled also.
Research has shown that the ability of PTE to better cross the blood-brain barrier and its high bioavailability meant it was “a more potent modulator of cognition and cellular stress than resveratrol.” [source:6]

However, far from being competing nootropics, Pterostilbene and Resveratrol work fantastically together to boost cognitive health. While Resveratrol has its biggest impacts at the start of the activity chain as it activates cells, PTE is both longer and stronger as it steps in further down the chain when it effects gene expression. PTE modulates genes that influence other proteins, DNA and mitochondria. It allows for neurogenesis (birth of new cells) by stimulating apoptosis (cell death) in old, unhealthy cells. It also protects healthy brain tissue by down-regulating invaders, such as cancer cells. [source:7] [source:8]

 

Improves Spatial Memory & Learning

Calorie restriction through fasting has been linked to an increase in synaptic plasticity, which leads to improved learning.[source:9]. It has been determined that this enhanced synaptic plasticity is prompted by increases in brain cell signalling. The increased signalling itself is modulated by cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein (CREB), which is critical in the formation of spatial memory. [source:10][source:11]. 

Spatial memory is intertwined with your ability to focus and process through tasks. It is responsible for processing ones environment and spatial orientation. For instance, a persons spatial memory is required to navigate through a city or through complex tasks by evaluating information against one another consecutively. It is often referred to and summarised as your ‘cognitive map’. Research indicates that spatial memory mainly operates in a specific part in the right side of your brain. [source:12]

Clinical trials have also found Pterostilbene to improve learning by elevating the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). [source:13] Several studies have shown that Pterostilbene modulates gene expression, increasing CREB and BDNF, thereby paving the way for better information retention & distribution. One such study provided aged animals with blueberry extract (containing PTE) over a 12-week period. Within just 3 weeks, improvements were recorded in spatial & working memory and these improvements remained consistent for the remainder of the experiment. The enhancements recorded directly correlated with the activation of CREB and increases of BDNF in the hippocampus, demonstrating PTE as a key component in the signaling pathway responsible for boosting specific learning and memory attributes. [source:14]

 

Pterostilbene as Nootropics UK from Earthly Biotics for earth grown ingredients

Maintains Cardiovascular Health

Pterostilbene is fantastic for cardiovascular health. First, as a powerful antioxidant, helping to protect the cells in our body from oxygen damage and free radicals. [source:15]. Second, as a modulator of inflammation, helping to avoid cardiovascular disease caused by chronic inflammation. 

Research has shown that even the small amount of Pterostilbene can provide benefits to cardiovascular health by decreasing oxidation and promoting vascular function, in turn changing the levels of blood lipids and reducing inflammation. [source:16]

 

Protects Neurons & Reduces Brain Fog

A study conducted in China aimed to find out whether Pterostilbene was behind the neuroprotective qualities of blueberries. Mice were each given a precise amount of PTE for three days (ranging from 2.5mg-80mg/kg) before a stroke was artificially induced. The mice were given the same dose again immediately after the stroke, at 1 hour and at 3 hours. It was discovered that Pterostilbene eliminated blood flow disruption, reduced cell apoptosis and improved both neuron survival and motor function. The researchers’ conclusion was that Pterostilbene had the ability to protect against the damage of a stroke, particularly if taken at a dose of 10mg 1 hour after the event. [source:17] 

This finding could be significant not only in terms of stroke defence, but also for otherwise healthy, ageing people who struggle with the ‘brain fog’ that comes with reduced cerebral circulation.

 

Boosts Dopamine

Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter which can be hindered by the impact of oxidative stress damaging neurons, leading to neurodegeneration. Antioxidants can not only halt, but even repair the damage done to these neurons, allowing for increased release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Pterostilbene is a powerful antioxidant.

A trial carried out by Tufts University, Boston looked into the effects of Pterostilbene on reversing cognitive decline. Researchers gave 344 rats either a low (0.004%) or high (0.016%) concentration of PTE. Results showed improvements in working memory, correlating with Pterostilbene levels in the hippocampus, increased dopamine release rates and reversal of cognitive behavioural deficits. [source:18]

Another way in which PTE boosts dopamine is through a ‘reverse effect’ where instead of increasing dopamine production, it prevents its re-uptake by neuroreceptors, leaving the dopamine available for increased alertness and enhanced cognition.

 

Pterostilbene in Best Nootropics by Earthly Biotics in Global Focus Nootropic

Reduces Anxiety

The University of Mississippi conducted a study into the use of Pterostilbene in anxiety disorders. Mice were given a dose of PTE at 1-10mg/kg and researchers tracked anxiolytic markers such as extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2, the signalling pathways involved in modulating mood. [source:19] While the findings showed that there were no anti-anxiety results in the mice given higher doses of Pterostilbene, at lower doses (1-2mg/kg) there were significant effects. There were also no detrimental impacts on motor movement, as is common with pharmacological anti-anxiety treatments. In conclusion: “These results suggest that Pterostilbene has the potential for therapeutic drug development for anxiety disorders.” [source:20]

 

Side Effects

Pterostilbene is considered non-toxic and is tolerated well by most people, with no reported side effects.

A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial by the University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy was conducted on 80 participants, divided into four groups. Groups received varied amounts of Pterostilbene, ranging from 0mg to 250mg, over a course of 6-8 weeks. The trial concluded that Pterostilbene is generally safe for use in humans at the highest dose tested and that even when taken twice a day is considered to be well tolerated. [source:21]

 

 

This information should be used for guidance only, please consult with a medical professional before taking any dietary supplement. Should you suffer from any ongoing medical conditions or have any concerns at all, consult your doctor in the first instance.

 

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